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How To Apply For A VA Loan: The Essential Steps

Essential Steps to Apply for a VA Loan

The VA loan program is a testament to the nation’s gratitude toward those who’ve served. Tailored for veterans, active duty service members, and eligible surviving spouses, it facilitates homeownership with unparalleled benefits. 

Essential Steps to Apply for a VA Loan

Key among these is the potential to purchase a home with no down payment, no private mortgage insurance, and access to competitive interest rates. This program acknowledges the sacrifices made by military personnel and provides them with a tangible asset, reinforcing their financial stability and fulfilling their dreams of owning a home.

Step 1: Determine Your Eligibility

Eligibility for a VA loan is a privilege earned through service, with specific criteria set to ensure that those who’ve dedicated a part of their lives to the nation’s defense can benefit. The requirements hinge on the length and nature of service, with veterans, active duty service members, and certain surviving spouses eligible. The cornerstone of this process is obtaining a Certificate of Eligibility (COE), which proves your entitlement to the program’s benefits.

Acquiring a COE can be done through two primary avenues: online via the VA’s eBenefits portal or through a VA-approved lender. The online method offers a swift and straightforward path to securing your COE, often resulting in instant approval for those with precise eligibility.

Alternatively, lenders accessing the VA’s systems can request a COE on your behalf, streamlining the loan application process. This initial step demystifies the lending landscape, setting the foundation for a successful journey toward homeownership through the VA loan program.

Step 2: Understand VA Loan Requirements

The VA loan program offers various benefits to make homeownership more accessible and affordable for those who have served our country. One of the most significant advantages is the possibility of purchasing a home with no down payment. This feature can alleviate the financial burden on veterans and active service members. 

Additionally, the program does not require borrowers to pay private mortgage insurance (PMI), an ordinary expense with conventional and FHA loans when down payments are less than 20%. Competitive interest rates are another hallmark of VA loans, potentially saving thousands of dollars over the life of the loan compared to other mortgage types.

However, applicants must meet specific requirements to take advantage of these benefits. While the VA does not set a strict minimum credit score, lenders typically look for a score of 620 or higher. Debt-to-income (DTI) ratios are also considered, with a general guideline of 41% or lower, though this can vary by lender and individual circumstances. 

Another critical aspect of VA loans is the funding fee, a one-time charge that can be rolled into the loan amount. This fee varies based on the borrower’s military service, the down payment size, and whether it’s the borrower’s first VA loan, ranging from 0.5% to 3.6% of the loan amount. The funding fee helps to keep the program running for future veterans and can be waived for those with service-connected disabilities.

Step 3: Select a VA-Approved Lender

Choosing the right lender is crucial to navigating the VA loan process smoothly and securing the best possible terms. It’s essential to work with lenders with extensive experience with VA loans and understand the unique aspects of this program. Experienced VA lenders are more likely to provide accurate guidance, process applications efficiently, and address issues arising during the loan approval process.

Veterans and service members are encouraged to shop around and compare what VA-approved lenders offer. Interest rates, fees, and customer service can vary significantly from one lender to another. Comparing these factors can help you find a lender that not only offers competitive terms but also understands the importance of the VA loan benefit and is committed to serving those who have served our country.

Step 4: Get Preapproved for a Loan

The pre-approval process is a preliminary step in the VA loan application that assesses a borrower’s creditworthiness and financial capacity. This phase involves submitting various documents to your lender, including proof of income (such as pay stubs), employment verification, military service records, and your Certificate of Eligibility (COE). Lenders also typically require a detailed look at your credit report and score. This documentation helps lenders determine how much they’re willing to lend based on assessing your financial stability and the risk you pose as a borrower.

The benefits of securing pre-approval before house hunting cannot be overstated. Firstly, it provides a clear idea of how much house you can afford, ensuring you look at homes within your budget. Secondly, a pre-approval letter significantly strengthens your position when offering a house. It signals to sellers that you are a serious buyer with confirmed financial backing, potentially making your offer more attractive than buyers who still need to take this step. In competitive housing markets, this can be a decisive advantage.

Step 5: House Hunting and Making an Offer

Finding the right home involves more than searching for a property that meets your preferences and budget. When utilizing a VA loan, it’s also critical that the home meets specific VA appraisal standards and minimum property requirements, which are designed to ensure the property is safe, sanitary, and structurally sound. Working with a real estate agent with experience with VA loans can significantly benefit this process. These agents understand the VA’s requirements and can help streamline the search by focusing on properties that are likely to qualify, thereby saving time and avoiding potential disappointments.

Once you’ve found a property that meets your criteria and VA standards, making an offer is the next step. Having a pre-approval letter at this stage is invaluable. It demonstrates your financial readiness and reassures the seller of your commitment and capability to follow through with the purchase. 

Your real estate agent can help negotiate favorable terms for you and the seller, including any requests for seller concessions allowed under VA loan guidelines. The agent’s expertise in handling VA transactions can facilitate smoother negotiations and increase the likelihood of your offer being accepted.

Step 6: VA Loan Underwriting and Closing

Once your offer on a home is accepted, your VA loan enters the underwriting stage. This critical phase involves a detailed review by the lender to verify your financial information and assess the property you intend to purchase. The underwriting process includes a VA appraisal, which ensures the property meets the Department of Veterans Affairs minimum property requirements for safety, sanitation, and structural integrity. 

This appraisal also confirms the property’s value matches the purchase price. The lender’s role during underwriting is to finalize all loan details, ensuring you meet all VA and lender-specific requirements for the loan approval.

The closing process marks the culmination of your home-buying journey. During closing, you’ll encounter various fees, including origination fees, title insurance, and recording fees. VA guidelines cap certain closing costs a veteran can pay and allow sellers to pay some or all of these expenses. 

You’ll need to provide proof of homeowner’s insurance and, in some cases, pay the VA funding fee unless exempt. The final steps involve signing many legal documents that transfer your home ownership. After these documents are signed and funds are distributed, you officially become the homeowner.


Navigating the path to homeownership through the VA loan program can initially seem daunting. However, understanding each step—from determining eligibility and understanding loan requirements to selecting a lender, getting preapproved, house hunting, and finally, the underwriting and closing process—demystifies the journey. The VA loan program offers unparalleled benefits, including no down payment, no private mortgage insurance, and competitive interest rates, designed to honor the service of veterans and active military members.

We encourage veterans and eligible service members to leverage these benefits. You’re taking a significant step towards homeownership by reaching out to VA-approved lenders and starting the process. The dream of owning a home can become a reality with the proper preparation and guidance. Take advantage of the VA loan program’s offerings and let it serve as a bridge to achieving your homeownership goals.


Picture of Reed Letson

Reed Letson

Reed offers two decades of expertise as a mortgage broker, focusing on veterans and first-time home buyers. With a strong grasp of real estate and mortgage markets, he empowers clients with practical insights. Reed's passion is guiding clients to build wealth through real estate investments and financing solutions.

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